Effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, a carcinogenesis inhibitor, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and nitrosamine metabolism in rats.
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis, possibly due to its ability to block the activation or to enhance the detoxification of chemical carcinogens. The present study was conducted to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved by characterizing the effects of PEITC on phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. A single dose of PEITC to F344 rats (1 mmol/kg) decreased the liver N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMAd) activity (mainly due to P450 2E1) by 80% at 2 h and the activity of NDMAd remained decreased by 40% at 48 h after treatment. The liver pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity and P450 2B1 protein level were elevated 10- and 7-fold at 24 h after treatment respectively. The liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) (mainly due to P450 1A) and erythromycin N-demethylase (mainly due to P450 3A) activities were decreased at 2-12 h after treatment and recovered afterwards. The lung microsomal PROD and EROD activities were not significantly affected; whereas, the nasal microsomal PROD and EROD activities were decreased by 40-50%. After a treatment with PEITC, the rates of oxidative metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were decreased in liver microsomes by 40-60% at 2 h and recovered gradually; the rates in lung microsomes were markedly decreased by 60-70% at 2 h and remained at the decreased level at 24 h; and the rates in nasal mucosa microsomes were decreased gradually with the lowest activities observed at 18 h (50%) followed by a gradual recovery. Furthermore, the treatment with PEITC resulted in a maximal 5-fold increase of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and 1.5-fold increase of glutathione S-transferase activities in the liver, but the activities of these two enzymes were not significantly affected in the lung and nasal mucosa. The sulfotransferase activity in the liver was decreased by 32-48% at 24-48 h after treatment; the nasal activity was increased by 1.8- to 2.5-fold, but the lung activity was not significantly changed. The hepatic UDP glucuronosyltransferase activity was slightly decreased at 2 h but slightly increased at 48 h after treatment, but no changes were observed for the lung and nasal activities. The study demonstrates that PEITC selectively affects xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver, lung and nasal mucosa and it is especially effective in inhibiting the P450-dependent oxidation of NNK in the lung and of NDMA in the liver.
Guo, Z; Smith, TJ; Wang, E; Sadrieh, N; Ma, Q; Thomas, PE; Yang, CS
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