Healing segmental femoral defects in sheep using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.
A middiaphyseal, 2.5-cm osteoperiosteal segmental defect stabilized by plate fixation was created in the right femur of 17 sheep. Four treatment groups were included: Group I, no implant; Group II, inactive bone matrix; Group III, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) mixed with inactive bone matrix; and Group IV, autogeneic bone graft. Three animals had early failure of fixation, and the remaining 14 were evaluated at three months after implantation. Radiographs showed bony union of all defects treated with rhBMP-2 (six) and a lack of bony union in the negative-control groups treated with no implant (three) and inactive bone matrix without BMP (three). Both defects treated with autograft healed. New bone formation in the defect sites treated with rhBMP-2 first appeared one month after implantation and had a mean bending strength (expressed as a percentage of the contralateral femur) of 91% +/- 59% (mean +/- standard deviation) for defects treated with BMP-2, 77% +/- 34% for autograft, 9% +/- 8% for no implant, and 11% +/- 7% for inactive matrix without BMP. Three sheep treated with rhBMP-2 had their fixation plates removed at four months and were followed for one year. Their bone defect sites remained solidly healed one year after the initial operation.
Gerhart, TN; Kirker-Head, CA; Kriz, MJ; Holtrop, ME; Hennig, GE; Hipp, J; Schelling, SH; Wang, E
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