Colloid chemical approach to nanoelectrode ensembles with highly controllable active area fraction.
A novel "bottom-up" approach to highly controllable nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) has been developed using colloidal nanoparticle self-assembly techniques. This solution-based strategy allows flexible control over nanoelectrode size, shape, and interspacing of the as-prepared NEEs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was proved to be a powerful tool to monitor the NEE topography, which yields parameters that can be used to calculate the fractional nanoelectrode area of the NEEs. AFM, ac impedance, and cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate that most of nanoelectrodes on the NEEs (at least by 9-min self-assembly) are not diffusionally isolated under conventional ac frequency range and scan rates. As a result, the NEEs behave as "nanoelectrode-patch" assemblies. Besides, the as-prepared NEEs by different self-assembling times show an adjustable sensitivity to heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics, which may be helpful to sensor applications. Like these NEEs constructed by other techniques, the present NEEs prepared by chemical self-assembly also exhibit the enhancement of electroanalytical detection limit consistent with NEE theory prediction.
Cheng, W; Dong, S; Wang, E
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