Peptide elongation factor eEF1A-2/S1 expression in cultured differentiated myotubes and its protective effect against caspase-3-mediated apoptosis.
Peptide elongation factor eEF1A-2/S1, which shares 92% homology with eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha, is exclusively expressed in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. In these tissues, eEF1A-2/S1 is the only type 1A elongation factor expressed in adulthood because a transition from eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha to eEF1A-2/S1 occurs in early postnatal development. In this article, we report that the expression of eEF1A-2/S1 protein is activated upon myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we show that upon serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, eEF1A-2/S1 protein disappears and is replaced by its homolog eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha in dying myotubes; cell death is characterized by the activation of caspase-3. In addition, we show that the continuous expression of eEF1A-2/S1 resulting from adenoviral gene transfer protects differentiated myotubes from apoptosis by delaying their death, thus suggesting a prosurvival function for eEF1A-2/S1 in skeletal muscle. In contrast, myotube death is accelerated by the introduction of the homologous gene, eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha, whereas cells transfected with antisense eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha are protected from apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the two sister genes, eEF1A-1/EF-1alpha and eEF1A-2/S1, regulate myotube survival with the former exerting prodeath activity and the latter a prosurvival effect.
Ruest, L-B; Marcotte, R; Wang, E
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