Anti-HIV-1 ADCC: clinical and therapeutic implications.
The predominant antienvelope cell-mediated cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected patients is a direct form of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in which circulating NK/K cells armed with cytophilic antibodies comprise a cytolytic effector cell complex capable of destroying HIV-1-expressing targets. This non-MHC-restricted form of virus-specific cytotoxicity is present in most infected patients, with maximum activity in early disease, gradually declining with disease progression. This endogenous cytotoxicity provides a focal point in the design of interventive strategies involving immune-based therapies. In the first such attempts, the lymphokine interleukin-2 has been employed in an effort to augment these potentially beneficial cytolytic reactivities. The focus of this article is to present the rationale, early clinical results, and future direction of such therapeutic approaches and, in doing so, to illustrate how careful basic research findings can be applied to the design of rational therapeutic strategies.
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