The impact of HIV-1 infection on phenotypic and functional parameters of cellular immunity in chimpanzees.
As a means of assessing the immunological impact of HIV infection in the chimpanzee, as well as the participation of the cellular components in the control of HIV infection in these animals, various aspects of cellular immunity were investigated in chronically HIV-infected chimpanzees. Eight HIV-1-infected chimpanzees were included in this study; two of them were infected for more than 5 years and six for nearly 3 years at the time of study. All of the chimpanzees received either 40 or 100 TCID50 of HTLV-IIIB. Circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied by flow cytofluorimetric analysis in order to reveal possible alterations in the CD4:CD8 ratio, as well as in specific CD4+ and CD8+ cell subpopulations. Chronically infected chimpanzees did not present significant alterations in the percentage of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. Interestingly, the CD8+/CD57+ cell subset was not detectable. The expression of markers for activation on circulating lymphocytes, usually higher in the HIV-infected patients, was not altered in infected animals. The functional aspects of specific anti-HIV-1 non-MHC and MHC-restricted cellular cytotoxic reactivities were also investigated. The results were compared with the findings in normal uninfected chimpanzees and in HIV-infected humans. Only one chimpanzee (881) developed a detectable, specific non-MHC-restricted anti-HIV-1- reactivity. Compared to that seen in humans, the ontogeny of this activity is delayed. Among the other infected chimpanzees, no specific anti-HIV cellular reactivities were detectable in the peripheral blood. In chimpanzees, HIV-1 infection evidently does not elicit the same strong cellular reactivity as that detected in infected patients. The absence of chronic cellular activation, despite continued viral replication, may highlight a key determinant in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis that is likewise absent in infected chimpanzees.
Ferrari, G; Ottinger, J; Place, C; Nigida, SM; Arthur, LO; Weinhold, KJ
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