Co-regulation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 by NFkappaB and CREB links LPS-induced inflammation to mitochondrial biogenesis.
The nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) gene is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might reflect TLR4-mediated mitigation of cellular inflammatory damage via initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we examined NRF1 promoter regulation by NFκB, and identified interspecies-conserved κB-responsive promoter and intronic elements in the NRF1 locus. In mice, activation of Nrf1 and its downstream target, Tfam, by Escherichia coli was contingent on NFκB, and in LPS-treated hepatocytes, NFκB served as an NRF1 enhancer element in conjunction with NFκB promoter binding. Unexpectedly, optimal NRF1 promoter activity after LPS also required binding by the energy-state-dependent transcription factor CREB. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed p65 and CREB binding to the NRF1 promoter and p65 binding to intron 1. Functionality for both transcription factors was validated by gene-knockdown studies. LPS regulation of NRF1 led to mtDNA-encoded gene expression and expansion of mtDNA copy number. In cells expressing plasmid constructs containing the NRF-1 promoter and GFP, LPS-dependent reporter activity was abolished by cis-acting κB-element mutations, and nuclear accumulation of NFκB and CREB demonstrated dependence on mitochondrial H(2)O(2). These findings indicate that TLR4-dependent NFκB and CREB activation co-regulate the NRF1 promoter with NFκB intronic enhancement and redox-regulated nuclear translocation, leading to downstream target-gene expression, and identify NRF-1 as an early-phase component of the host antibacterial defenses.
Suliman, HB; Sweeney, TE; Withers, CM; Piantadosi, CA
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