Competitive translation efficiency at the picornavirus type 1 internal ribosome entry site facilitated by viral cis and trans factors.
Enteroviruses (EVs) overcome their host cells by usurping the translation machinery to benefit viral gene expression. This is accomplished through alternative translation initiation in a cap-independent manner at the viral internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). We have investigated the role of cis- and trans-acting viral factors in EV IRES translation in living cells. We observed that considerable portions of the viral genome, including the 5'-proximal open reading frame and the 3' untranslated region, contribute to stimulation of IRES-mediated translation. With the IRES in proper context, translation via internal initiation in uninfected cells is as efficient as at capped messages with short, unstructured 5' untranslated regions. IRES function is enhanced in cells infected with the EV coxsackievirus B3, but the related poliovirus has no significant stimulatory activity. This differential is due to the inherent properties of their 2A protease and is not coupled to 2A-mediated proteolytic degradation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G. Our results suggest that the efficiency of alternative translation initiation at EV IRESs depends on a properly configured template rather than on targeted alterations of the host cell translation machinery.
Dobrikova, EY; Grisham, RN; Kaiser, C; Lin, J; Gromeier, M
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