Genetic adaptation to untranslated region-mediated enterovirus growth deficits by mutations in the nonstructural proteins 3AB and 3CD.
Both untranslated regions (UTRs) of plus-strand RNA virus genomes jointly control translation and replication of viral genomes. In the case of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, the 5'UTR consists of a cloverleaf-like terminus preceding the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and the 3' terminus is composed of a structured 3'UTR and poly(A). The IRES and poly(A) have been implicated in translation control, and all UTR structures, in addition to cis-acting genetic elements mapping to the open reading frame, have been assigned roles in RNA replication. Viral UTRs are recognized by viral and host cell RNA-binding proteins that may co-determine genome stability, translation, plus- and minus-strand RNA replication, and scaffolding of viral replication complexes within host cell substructures. In this report, we describe experiments with coxsackie B viruses with a cell type-specific propagation deficit in Sk-N-Mc neuroblastoma cells conferred by the combination of a heterologous IRES and altered 3'UTR. Serial passage of these constructs in Sk-N-Mc cells yielded genetic adaptation by mutations within the viral nonstructural proteins 3A and 3C. Our data implicate 3A and/or 3C or their precursors 3AB and/or 3CD in a functional complex with the IRES and 3'UTR that drives viral propagation. Adaptation to neuroblastoma cells suggests an involvement of cell type-specific host factors or the host cell cytoplasmic milieu in this phenomenon.
Florez de Sessions, P; Dobrikova, E; Gromeier, M
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