Design of a water coupling bolus with improved flow distribution for multi-element superficial hyperthermia applicators.


Journal Article

A water bolus used in superficial hyperthermia couples the electromagnetic (EM) or acoustic energy into the target tissue and cools the tissue surface to minimise thermal hotspots and patient discomfort during treatment. Parametric analyses of the fluid pressure inside the bolus computed using 3D fluid dynamics simulations are used in this study to determine a bolus design with improved flow and surface temperature distributions for large area superficial heat applicators. The simulation results are used in the design and fabrication of a 19 x 32 cm prototype bolus with dual input-dual output (DIDO) flow channels. Sequential thermal images of the bolus surface temperature recorded for a step change in the circulating water temperature are used to assess steady state flow and surface temperature distributions across the bolus. Modelling and measurement data indicate substantial improvement in bolus flow and surface temperature distributions when changing from the previous single input-single output (SISO) to DIDO configuration. Temperature variation across the bolus at steady state was measured to be less than 0.8 degrees C for the DIDO bolus compared to 1.5 degrees C for the SISO water bolus. The new DIDO bolus configuration maintains a nearly uniform flow distribution and low variation in surface temperature over a large area typically treated in superficial hyperthermia.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, PF; Schlorff, JL; Birkelund, Y; Jacobsen, S; Stauffer, PR

Published Date

  • November 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 25 / 7

Start / End Page

  • 554 - 565

PubMed ID

  • 19848618

Pubmed Central ID

  • 19848618

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1464-5157

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0265-6736

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3109/02656730903124506


  • eng