Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 x 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Birkelund, Y; Jacobsen, S; Arunachalam, K; Maccarini, P; Stauffer, PR

Published Date

  • July 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 54 / 13

Start / End Page

  • 3937 - 3953

PubMed ID

  • 19494426

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC2735859

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1361-6560

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0031-9155

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1088/0031-9155/54/13/001


  • eng