Real-time MRI-guided hyperthermia treatment using a fast adaptive algorithm.
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is promising for monitoring and guiding hyperthermia treatments. The goal of this work is to investigate the stability of an algorithm for online MR thermal image guided steering and focusing of heat into the target volume. The control platform comprised a four-antenna mini-annular phased array (MAPA) applicator operating at 140 MHz (used for extremity sarcoma heating) and a GE Signa Excite 1.5 T MR system, both of which were driven by a control workstation. MR proton resonance frequency shift images acquired during heating were used to iteratively update a model of the heated object, starting with an initial finite element computed model estimate. At each iterative step, the current model was used to compute a focusing vector, which was then used to drive the next iteration, until convergence. Perturbation of the driving vector was used to prevent the process from stalling away from the desired focus. Experimental validation of the performance of the automatic treatment platform was conducted with two cylindrical phantom studies, one homogeneous and one muscle equivalent with tumor tissue (conductivity 50% higher) inserted, with initial focal spots being intentionally rotated 90 degrees and 50 degrees away from the desired focus, mimicking initial setup errors in applicator rotation. The integrated MR-HT treatment platform steered the focus of heating into the desired target volume in two quite different phantom tissue loads which model expected patient treatment configurations. For the homogeneous phantom test where the target was intentionally offset by 90 degrees rotation of the applicator, convergence to the proper phase focus in the target occurred after 16 iterations of the algorithm. For the more realistic test with a muscle equivalent phantom with tumor inserted with 50 degrees applicator displacement, only two iterations were necessary to steer the focus into the tumor target. Convergence improved the heating efficacy (the ratio of integral temperature in the tumor to integral temperature in normal tissue) by up to six-fold, compared to the first iteration. The integrated MR-HT treatment algorithm successfully steered the focus of heating into the desired target volume for both the simple homogeneous and the more challenging muscle equivalent phantom with tumor insert models of human extremity sarcomas after 16 and 2 iterations, correspondingly. The adaptive method for MR thermal image guided focal steering shows promise when tested in phantom experiments on a four-antenna phased array applicator.
Stakhursky, VL; Arabe, O; Cheng, K-S; Macfall, J; Maccarini, P; Craciunescu, O; Dewhirst, M; Stauffer, P; Das, SK
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