Multimodal percutaneous intervention for critical venous occlusive disease.
Critical deep venous thrombosis and occlusion constitutes a small percentage of patients with venous disease, who exhibit severe symptomatology. This study examined the results of multimodal percutaneous therapy for the treatment of complex critical venous thrombotic and occlusive disease. Twenty-five patients presented with critical venous thromboses or occlusions (11 with debilitating unilateral lower extremity edema causing ambulatory impairment, 2 with debilitating bilateral lower extremity edema, 3 with phlegmasia cerulea dolens, 2 with venous claudication, 2 with superior vena cava (SVS) syndrome with respiratory compromise, 4 with debilitating upper extremity edema, and 1 with renal insufficiency). Therapeutic modalities including thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, percutaneous venoplasty and stent placement, temporary inferior vena cava filtration, and ultrasound guidance were used in all cases in conjunction with long-term systemic anticoagulation. The venous access site was determined by the anatomic location of the lesion and included popliteal, femoral, brachial, and lesser saphenous. Patients were followed with clinical exam and duplex surveillance. Resolution of symptoms was achieved in 18 of 25 patients (72%) and partial resolution occurred in 4 of 25 (16%). Failure of treatment identified as both lack of clinical response and evidence of continued venous thrombosis occurred 3 of 25 patients (12%). Restoration of arterial pulses and limb salvage was achieved in the three patients with phlegmasia cerulea dolens and acute limb-threatening ischemia. Both patients with SVC syndrome experienced resolution of respiratory compromise and facial edema. The mean length of follow-up was 11 +/- 2.7 months. Complications included transfusion requirement (2), hematuria (2), retroperitoneal hematoma (1), and cellulitis (1). Acute critical venous thrombotic and occlusive disease is responsive to multimodal percutaneous treatment. The relief of pain and resolution of acutely life and limb-threatening conditions in this most severely symptomatic subset of patients represents the immediate goal of treatment.
Dayal, R; Bernheim, J; Clair, DG; Mousa, AY; Hollenbeck, S; DeRubertis, B; McKinsey, J; Morrissey, NJ; Kent, KC; Faries, PL
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