Hyponatremia in the neurosurgical patient: diagnosis and management.
Hyponatremia is frequently encountered in patients who have undergone neurosurgery for intracranial processes. Making an accurate diagnosis between the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting (CSW) in patients in whom hyponatremia develops is important because treatment differs greatly between the conditions. The SIADH is a volume-expanded condition, whereas CSW is a volume-contracted state that involves renal loss of sodium. Treatment for patients with SIADH is fluid restriction and treatment for patients with CSW is generally salt and water replacement. In this review, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia, distinguish SIADH from CSW, and highlight the diagnosis and management of hyponatremia, which is commonly encountered in patients who have undergone neurosurgery, specifically those with traumatic brain injury, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, recent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors, and postoperative cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis.
Cole, CD; Gottfried, ON; Liu, JK; Couldwell, WT
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