Inhibition of NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaB2 activation in prostate cancer cells treated with antibody against the carboxyl terminal domain of GRP78: effect of p53 upregulation.
Ligation of cancer cell surface GRP78 by activated alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M*) triggers pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Cancer patients who develop autoantibodies to the alpha2M* binding site in GRP78 have a poor prognosis since these antibodies are receptor agonists. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors induces expression of genes affecting cell growth and differentiation. NF-kappaB1 plays a major regulatory role in controlling innate immunity and inflammation, whereas NF-kappaB2 plays a greater role in cancer cell proliferation. Here we report that treatment of prostate cancer cells with antibody directed against the carboxyl terminal domain of GRP78 inhibits alpha2M*-induced activation of NF-kappaB2 by approximately 50% while exerting a lesser effect of approximately 20% on NF-kappaB1 activation. Treatment of these cells nearly abolished alpha2M*-induced activation of IKKalpha involved in the activation of NF-kappaB2. This antibody also suppressed alpha2M*-induced phosphorylation of IKKalpha, IKKalpha/beta, IkappaBalpha, and IkappaBbeta as well as levels of NIK. Antibody treatment of cancer cells elevated pro-apoptotic p21WAF and p27kip while reducing cyclin D1 levels. These studies demonstrate that antibody directed against the carboxyl terminal domain of GRP78 inhibits the pro-proliferative NF-kappaB signaling cascade in cancer cells.
Misra, UK; Kaczowka, S; Pizzo, SV
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