Prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro is modulated by antibodies against glucose-regulated protein 78 isolated from patient serum.
Circulating autoantibodies against the glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) are present at high levels in prostate cancer patients and are a biomarker of aggressive tumor behavior. We purified the anti-GRP78 IgGs and examined their effect on 1-LN, PC-3, DU145, and LnCap human prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated its effects on the breast cancer MDA-MB231 and melanoma DM413 cell lines. The anti-GRP78 antibody binds only to cells expressing GRP78 on the surface, to a site also recognized by its physiologic agonist, activated alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M*). This antibody is completely specific for a peptide, including the primary amino acid sequence CNVKSDKSC, which contains a tertiary structural motif mimicking an epitope in GRP78. Tertiary structural analysis suggested the linear GRP78 primary amino acid sequence LIGRTWNDPSVQQDIKFL (Leu(98)-Leu(115)) as the putative binding site, containing the tertiary structual arrangement described above, which was confirmed experimentally. The anti-GRP78 antibodies from prostate cancer patients recognize almost exclusively this epitope. We produced animal antibodies against both these peptides, and they are able to mimic the effects of the human antibody. Our experiments also suggest this epitope as highly immunogenic, thereby explaining the specificity of the immune response against this epitope in GRP78, observed in humans. Using 1-LN cells as a model, we show that anti-GRP78 IgG purified from the sera of these patients mimics the proproliferative effects induced by alpha(2)M* via the common receptor, GRP78. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of human anti-GRP78 IgG show a dose-dependent protective effect on apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Gonzalez-Gronow, M; Cuchacovich, M; Llanos, C; Urzua, C; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, SV
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