The role of MTJ-1 in cell surface translocation of GRP78, a receptor for alpha 2-macroglobulin-dependent signaling.
MTJ-1 associates with a glucose-regulated protein of Mr approximately 78,000(GRP78) in the endoplasmic reticulum and modulates GRP78 activity as a chaperone. GRP78 also exists on the cell surface membrane, where it is associated with a number of functions. MHC class I Ags on the cell surface are complexed to GRP78. GRP78 also serves as the receptor for alpha2-macroglobulin-dependent signaling and for uptake of certain pathogenic viruses. The means by which GRP78, lacking a transmembrane domain, can fulfill such functions is unclear. In this study we have examined the question of whether MTJ-1, a transmembrane protein, is involved in the translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface. MTJ-1 and GRP78 coimmunoprecipitated from macrophage plasma membrane lysates. Silencing of MTJ-1 gene expression greatly reduced MTJ-1 mRNA and protein levels, but also abolished cell surface localization of GRP78. Consequently, binding of the activated and receptor-recognized form of alpha2-macroglobulin to macrophages was greatly reduced, and activated and receptor-recognized form of alpha2-macroglobulin-induced calcium signaling was abolished in these cells. In conclusion, we show that in addition to assisting the chaperone GRP78 in protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum, MTJ-1 is essential for transport of GRP78 to the cell surface, which serves a number of functions in immune regulation and signal transduction.
Misra, UK; Gonzalez-Gronow, M; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, SV
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