The mast cell activator compound 48/80 is safe and effective when used as an adjuvant for intradermal immunization with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.
We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the mast cell activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) when used as an adjuvant delivered intradermally (ID) with recombinant anthrax protective antigen (rPA) in comparison with two well-known adjuvants. Mice were vaccinated in the ear pinnae with rPA or rPA+C48/80, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG), or cholera toxin (CT). All adjuvants induced similar increases in serum anti-rPA IgG and lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies. C48/80 induced a balanced cytokine production (Th1/Th2/Th17) by antigen-restimulated splenocytes, minimal injection site inflammation, and no antigen-specific IgE. Histological analysis demonstrated that vaccination with C48/80 reduced the number of resident mast cells and induced an injection site neutrophil influx within 24h. Our data demonstrate that C48/80 is a safe and effective adjuvant, when used by the intradermal route, to induce protective antibody and balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 responses.
McGowen, AL; Hale, LP; Shelburne, CP; Abraham, SN; Staats, HF
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