Activation-dependent conformational changes in {beta}-arrestin 2.

Published

Journal Article

Beta-arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins, which mediate desensitization, endocytosis, and alternate signaling pathways of seven membrane-spanning receptors (7MSRs). Crystal structures of the basal inactive state of visual arrestin (arrestin 1) and beta-arrestin 1 (arrestin 2) have been resolved. However, little is known about the conformational changes that occur in beta-arrestins upon binding to the activated phosphorylated receptor. Here we characterize the conformational changes in beta-arrestin 2 (arrestin 3) by comparing the limited tryptic proteolysis patterns and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of beta-arrestin 2 in the presence of a phosphopeptide (V(2)R-pp) derived from the C terminus of the vasopressin type II receptor (V(2)R) or the corresponding nonphosphopeptide (V(2)R-np). V(2)R-pp binds to beta-arrestin 2 specifically, whereas V(2)R-np does not. Activation of beta-arrestin 2 upon V(2)R-pp binding involves the release of its C terminus, as indicated by exposure of a previously inaccessible cleavage site, one of the polar core residues Arg(394), and rearrangement of its N terminus, as indicated by the shielding of a previously accessible cleavage site, residue Arg(8). Interestingly, binding of the polyanion heparin also leads to release of the C terminus of beta-arrestin 2; however, heparin and V(2)R-pp have different binding site(s) and/or induce different conformational changes in beta-arrestin 2. Release of the C terminus from the rest of beta-arrestin 2 has functional consequences in that it increases the accessibility of a clathrin binding site (previously demonstrated to lie between residues 371 and 379) thereby enhancing clathrin binding to beta-arrestin 2 by 10-fold. Thus, the V(2)R-pp can activate beta-arrestin 2 in vitro, most likely mimicking the effects of an activated phosphorylated 7MSR. These results provide the first direct evidence of conformational changes associated with the transition of beta-arrestin 2 from its basal inactive conformation to its biologically active conformation and establish a system in which receptor-beta-arrestin interactions can be modeled in vitro.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Xiao, K; Shenoy, SK; Nobles, K; Lefkowitz, RJ

Published Date

  • December 31, 2004

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 279 / 53

Start / End Page

  • 55744 - 55753

PubMed ID

  • 15501822

Pubmed Central ID

  • 15501822

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0021-9258

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1074/jbc.M409785200

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States