RV instantaneous intraventricular diastolic pressure and velocity distributions in normal and volume overload awake dog disease models.
Intraventricular diastolic right ventricular (RV) flow field dynamics were studied by functional imaging using three-dimensional (3D) real-time echocardiography with sonomicrometry and computational fluid dynamics in seven awake dogs at control with normal wall motion (NWM) and RV volume overload with diastolic paradoxical septal motion. Burgeoning flow cross section between inflow anulus and chamber walls induces a convective pressure rise, which represents a "convective deceleration load" (CDL). High spatiotemporal resolution dynamic pressure and velocity distributions of the intraventricular RV flow field revealed time-dependent, subtle interactions between intraventricular local acceleration and convective pressure gradients. During the E-wave upstroke, the total pressure gradient along intraventricular flow is the algebraic sum of a pressure decrease contributed by local acceleration and a pressure rise contributed by a convective deceleration that partially counterbalances the local acceleration gradient. This underlies the smallness of early diastolic intraventricular gradients. At peak volumetric inflow, local acceleration vanishes and the total adverse intraventricular gradient is convective. During the E-wave downstroke, the strongly adverse gradient embodies the streamwise pressure augmentations from both local and convective decelerations. It induces flow separation and large-scale vortical motions, stronger in NWM. Their dynamic corollaries on intraventricular pressure and velocity distributions were ascertained. In the NWM pattern, the strong ring-like vortex surrounding the central core encroaches on the area available for flow toward the apex. This results in higher linear velocities later in the downstroke of the E wave than at peak inflow rate. The augmentation of CDL by ventriculoannular disproportion may contribute to E wave and E-to-A ratio depression with chamber dilatation.
Pasipoularides, A; Shu, M; Shah, A; Tucconi, A; Glower, DD
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