Upper extremity computed tomographic angiography: state of the art technique and applications in 2010.
From technical and interpretative perspectives, upper extremity computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is one of the more challenging vascular CTA applications. Synchronizing the relatively large scan coverage with a single bolus of contrast medium requires precise selection of acquisition and contrast delivery parameters. To avoid multiple acquisitions and minimize radiation exposure and contrast medium volume, it is important to have fundamental knowledge on how to select these parameters. Equally important is knowing how to adeptly apply advanced workstation visualization techniques and tool functions for the upper extremity vascular tree. In this review, upper extremity arterial and venous anatomy is discussed, followed by a detailed overview on state-of-the-art upper extremity CTA technical considerations and strategies. The review concludes with discussion and illustration of upper extremity CTA clinical applications.
Hellinger, JC; Epelman, M; Rubin, GD
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