Dental formulae and dental eruption patterns in Parapithecidae (Primates, Anthropoidea).
The eruption sequence for the lower teeth of Apidium phiomense based on 18 juvenile specimens is dP3, dP4, M1, M2, P2, P4, (P3, M3), C. Only five specimens of Parapithecus grangeri show developing lower teeth. P2, M1, and M2 all erupted before P3 and P4; C and M3 were the last cheek teeth to erupt. Late eruption of the lower canines in parapithecids is a possible shared derived resemblance linking these species with Anthropoidea and Adapidae and distinguishing both from Omomyidae, Tarsiidae, and tooth-combed lemurs. Late eruption of M3 in parapithecids is a shared derived resemblance with Anthropoidea alone. The lower dental formula of Apidium phiomense is confirmed as 2 X 1 X 3 X 3 by additional specimens which show the incisors. Based in part on tooth socket counts, the deciduous lower dental formula was 2 X 1 X 3. New specimens of Parapithecus grangeri now demonstrate an adult mandibular dental formula of 0 X 1 X 3 X 3 (not 2 X 1 X 3 X 3 as previously thought) and a juvenile formula of 1 X 1 X 3. The number of incisors possessed by Parapithecus fraasi is again open to debate. Material is insufficient to judge whether this species had a pair of incisors in each lower jaw quadrant, by analogy with Apidium, or had undergone reduction to just one incisor. In any event, the presence of two incisors in another parapithecid Apidium shows anterior tooth reduction of Parapithecus grangeri occurred independent of, and should not be considered a shared derived similarity with, Tarsiidae, as was once thought.
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