The phyletic relationships of extant and fossil Pitheciinae (Platyrrhini, Anthropoidea)
A phylogenetic assessment of Pitheciinae (sensuHershkovitz, 1977) is undertaken. Among the three living genera of pitheciines,Chiropotes andCacajao share a more recent common ancestor than either does withPithecia. Evidence for the position of pitheciines within the platyrrhine clade is weak and contradictory owing partly to the amount of parallelism within and among various platyrrhine subfamilies.Rosenberger's (1979, 1984) hypothesis thatAotus and/orCallicebus are closely related to pitheciines is not supported by a review of the cranial, dental and postcranial evidence. The evidence is weak thatAlouatta and the atelines are the sister group of pitheciines as argued byFord (1986). An alternative view is advanced that pitheciines are an early offshoot of the platyrrhine clade. The relationships of some fossil forms to living pitheciines are considered.Cebupithecia from the Miocene of Colombia is definitely pitheciine based especially on the dentition (rounded, chisel-shaped canines) but also on postcranial evidence. However, it lacks some of the dental specializations shared by living pitheciines; therefore it is most likely a sister group of living pitheciines. Argentine MioceneSoriacebus is not a pitheciine but is convergently specialized for a diet similar to living pitheciines. Colombian MioceneMohanamico hershkovitzi (a senior synonym ofAotus dindensis) is possibly a very primitive pitheciine and an unlikely sister taxon toCallimico. © 1989 Academic Press Limited.
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