Glioblastoma proto-oncogene SEC61gamma is required for tumor cell survival and response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most prevalent type of adult brain tumor and one of the deadliest tumors known to mankind. The genetic understanding of glioblastoma multiforme is, however, limited, and the molecular mechanisms that facilitate glioblastoma multiforme cell survival and growth within the tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. We applied digital karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to screen for copy-number changes in glioblastoma multiforme samples and found that the most frequently amplified region is at chromosome 7p11.2. The high resolution of digital karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays permits the precise delineation of amplicon boundaries and has enabled identification of the minimal region of amplification at chromosome 7p11.2, which contains two genes, EGFR and SEC61gamma. SEC61gamma encodes a subunit of a heterotrimeric protein channel located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition to its high frequency of gene amplification in glioblastoma multiforme, SEC61gamma is also remarkably overexpressed in 77% of glioblastoma multiforme but not in lower-grade gliomas. The small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SEC61gamma expression in tumor cells led to growth suppression and apoptosis. Furthermore, we showed that pharmacologic ER stress agents induce SEC61gamma expression in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Together, these results indicate that aberrant expression of SEC61gamma serves significant roles in glioblastoma multiforme cell survival likely via a mechanism that is involved in the cytoprotective ER stress-adaptive response to the tumor microenvironment.
Lu, Z; Zhou, L; Killela, P; Rasheed, AB; Di, C; Poe, WE; McLendon, RE; Bigner, DD; Nicchitta, C; Yan, H
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