Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of human prostates ex vivo.
It has been challenging for clinicians using current imaging modalities to visualize internal structures and detect lesions inside human prostates. Lack of contrast among prostatic tissues and high false positive or negative detection rates of prostate lesions have limited the use of current imaging modalities in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this study, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is introduced to visualize the anatomical and abnormal structures in freshly excised human prostates. A modified Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Malvern, PA) and a Siemens VF10-5 linear array were used to acquire ARFI images. The transducer was attached to a three-dimensional (3-D) translation stage, which was programmed to automate volumetric data acquisition. A depth dependent gain (DDG) method was developed and applied to 3-D ARFI datasets to compensate for the displacement gradients associated with spatially varying radiation force magnitudes as a function of depth. Nine human prostate specimens were collected and imaged immediately after surgical excision. Prostate anatomical structures such as seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, peripheral zone, central zone, transition zone and verumontanum were visualized with high spatial resolution and in good agreement with McNeal's zonal anatomy. The characteristic appearance of prostate pathologies, such as prostate cancerous lesions, benign prostatic hyperplasia, calcified tissues and atrophy were identified in ARFI images based upon correlation with the corresponding histologic slides. This study demonstrates that ARFI imaging can be used to visualize internal structures and detecting suspicious lesions in the prostate and appears promising for image guidance of prostate biopsy.
Zhai, L; Madden, J; Foo, W-C; Palmeri, ML; Mouraviev, V; Polascik, TJ; Nightingale, KR
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