Pathological T2 sub-divisions as a prognostic factor in the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the adequacy of T2 prostate cancer (PCa) sub-staging as an independent Predictor of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Duke Prostate Center database was queried for patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 2007 and had pT2 PCa, identifying 1990 cases. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence was defined as a single value ≥0.2 ng/mL. Kaplan-Meier curves compared differences in bDFS between T2 sub-divisions. Multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age, pathological Gleason sum, surgical margin status, preoperative PSA, race, total tumour percentage and prostate weight on biochemical recurrence. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 62 years, and 16% of patients were African-American. Median prostate weight was 40 g [interquartile range (IQR) 31-52] and median preoperative PSA was 5.6 (IQR 4.2-7.8). Pathological Gleason score was ≤6 in 57%, 7 in 38%, and ≥8 in 5%; pathological T stage distribution was 18% T2a, 6% T2b, and 76% T2c; and percentage tumour involvement was ≤5% in 43%, between 5.1 and 10% in 24%, between 10.1 and 15% in 10%, and >15% in 19%. 366 (18.4%) patients had a biochemical recurrence after a median of 4.6 years (IQR 2.1-8.2) follow-up. bDFS was significantly (P= 0.006) higher for pT2a disease than for pT2b and pT2c, which were comparable. Adjusting for demographic and other pathological variables, T2 sub-divisions lost statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Pathological T2a prostate cancer has significantly higher bDFS than the pT2b or pT2c sub-groups in univariate but not multivariate analyses. Different pathological features should be explored to create more meaningfully predictive pathological T2 sub-divisions.
Caso, JR; Tsivian, M; Mouraviev, V; Polascik, TJ; Moul, JW
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