Comparison of dietary intake of overweight postpartum mothers practicing breastfeeding or formula feeding.
BACKGROUND: Weight gain in the postpartum period is a risk factor for long-term obesity. Investigations of dietary intake among lactating and nonlactating overweight women might identify nutritional concerns specific to this population. OBJECTIVE: To compare nutrient, meal, and snack intakes, food-group servings and prevalence of dieting among fully breastfeeding (BF), mixed breast and formula feeding (MF), and formula feeding (FF) overweight and obese women. The second aim was to compare nutrient intakes and food-group servings to the Dietary Reference Intake and MyPyramid recommendations, respectively. DESIGN: Data were collected from September 2004 through April 2006 in Durham, NC. Infant feeding practices and dietary information were collected on 450 women between 6 and 9 weeks postpartum. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were completed by phone, using Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Analysis of covariance was used to compare infant feeding groups in dietary quality (nutrient intake per 1,000 kcal) and food-group servings, controlling for prepregnancy body mass index, race, age, education, income, and marital status. χ² analysis was performed to determine differences in meal and snack intake and dieting among infant feeding groups. RESULTS: BF women consumed more energy (2,107 ± 50 kcal) than MF (1,866 ± 56 kcal) or FF (1,657 ± 50 kcal) women (P < 0.001). Adjusted nutrient intake did not differ between groups. All groups were at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamins A, E, C, and folate and did not meet recommended servings of all food groups. BF women consumed lunch and snacks more frequently, were less likely to diet, and reported higher intakes of grains and desserts than MF and FF women. CONCLUSIONS: To help increase intakes of nutrients lacking in the diet and prevent postpartum weight gain, overweight women should be encouraged to increase fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, whole grains, legumes, and healthy types of fat, while decreasing refined grains, regular soda, sweetened beverages, and desserts.
Durham, HA; Lovelady, CA; Brouwer, RJN; Krause, KM; Ostbye, T
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