" I take the good with the bad, and I moisturize": defying middle age in the new millennium.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To examine how women in their 40s understand "middle age" in the context of sociocultural ideas about the life course.


In-depth interviews were conducted with a subset of 53 volunteers (19 European American, 17 African American, and 17 Latina) from a community-based longitudinal study of premenopausal women between 40 and 48 years of age living in the San Francisco Bay area.


Qualitative analysis of the interview showed that women in their 40s are less concerned about menopause and more concerned about their health, well-being, and appearance. This trend was seen across ethnic groups. Menopause was not a prominent feature in the narratives that these women told about middle age. Whereas menopause was understood as a natural event that was out of women's control, health and appearance were deemed as something that women can and should control. By taking care of themselves, the women felt that they were able to act and look younger, thereby challenging what middle age means.


These women articulated a perspective about middle age as less about a chronological number and more about individual responsibility and control of one's well-being. Scholarly attention has continued to focus on menopause itself as a phenomenon and thereby fails to engage in how the meaning of middle age may be in a process of reconceptualization.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Beyene, Y; Gilliss, C; Lee, K

Published Date

  • July 2007

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 14 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 734 - 741

PubMed ID

  • 17279059

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1530-0374

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1072-3714

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/gme.0b013e31802f91de


  • eng