Intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic micro-multileaf collimation.
PURPOSE: The implementation of dynamic leaf motion on a micro-multileaf collimator system provides the capability for intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS), and the consequent potential for improved dose distributions for irregularly shaped tumor volumes adjacent to critical organs. This study explores the use of IMSRS to provide improved tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing for small cranial tumors relative to plans based on multiple fixed uniform-intensity beams or traditional circular collimator arc-based stereotactic techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four patient cases involving small brain lesions are presented and analyzed. The cases were chosen to include a representative selection of target shapes, number of targets, and adjacent critical areas. Patient plans generated for these comparisons include standard arcs with multiple circular collimators, and fixed noncoplanar static fields with uniform-intensity beams and IMSRS. Parameters used for evaluation of the plans include the percentage of irradiated volume to tumor volume (PITV), normal tissue dose-volume histograms, and dose-homogeneity ratios. All IMSRS plans were computed using previously established IMRT techniques adapted for use with the BrainLAB M3 micro-multileaf collimator. The algorithms comprising the IMRT system for optimization of intensity distributions and conversion into leaf trajectories of the BrainLab M3 were developed at our institution. The ADAC Pinnacle(3) radiation treatment-planning system was used for dose calculations and for input of contours for target volumes and normal critical structures. RESULTS: For all cases, the IMSRS plans showed a high degree of conformity of the dose distribution with the target shape. The IMSRS plans provided either (1) a smaller volume of normal tissue irradiated to significant dose levels, generally taken as doses greater than 50% of the prescription, or (2) a lower dose to an important adjacent critical organ. The reduction in volume of normal tissue irradiated in the IMSRS plans ranged from 10% to 50% relative to the other arc and uniform fixed-field plans. CONCLUSION: The case studies presented for IMSRS demonstrate significant dosimetric improvements for small, irregularly shaped lesions of the brain when compared to treatments using multiple static fields or standard SRS arc techniques with circular collimators. For all cases, the IMSRS plan yielded a smaller volume of normal tissue irradiated, and/or a reduction in the volume of an adjacent critical organ (i.e., brainstem) irradiated to significant dose levels.
Benedict, SH; Cardinale, RM; Wu, Q; Zwicker, RD; Broaddus, WC; Mohan, R
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