A method for determining multileaf collimator transmission and scatter for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy.
The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate a practical means of determining the leaf transmission and scatter characteristics of a multileaf collimator (MLC) pertinent to the commissioning of dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy, especially for the sweeping window technique. The data are necessary for the conversion of intensity distributions produced by intensity-modulated radiotherapy optimization systems into trajectories of MLC leaves for dynamic delivery. Measurements are described for two, tungsten alloy MLCs: a Mark II 80-leaf MLC on a Varian 2100C accelerator and a Millenium 120-leaf MLC on a Varian 2100EX accelerator. MLC leakage was measured by film for a series of field sizes. Measured MLC leakage was 1.68% for a 10 x 10 cm2 field for both 6 and 18 MV for the 80-leaf MLC. For the 6 MV field, the 1.68% leakage consisted of 1.48% direct transmission and 0.20% leaf scatter. Direct transmission through the 80-leaf MLC, including the rounded leaf tip, was calculated analytically taking into account the detailed leaf geometry and a Monte Carlo-generated energy spectrum of the accelerator. The integrated fluence under the leaf tip was equivalent to an inward shift of 0.06 cm of a hypothetical leaf with a flat, focused tip. Monte Carlo calculations of the dose to phantom beyond a closed 80-leaf MLC showed excellent agreement with the analytic results. The transmission depends on the density of the MLC alloy, which may differ among individual MLCs. Thus, it is important to measure the transmission of any particular MLC. Calculated doses for a series of uniform fields produced by dynamic sweeping windows of various widths agree with measurements within 2%.
Arnfield, MR; Siebers, JV; Kim, JO; Wu, Q; Keall, PJ; Mohan, R
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