Testing the interaction between parent-child relationship factors and parent smoking to predict youth smoking.
To examine if parental smoking modifies the association between parent-child connectedness and parental disapproval of youth smoking with smoking behavior among minority youth.
Baseline data from an urban Seattle, Washington neighborhood-based intervention trial to reduce risk behaviors among minority males and females aged 11-15 years were used to identify 428 minority youth-parent/guardian pairs. Parental smoking status, assessed by telephone interview, and youth reports of connectedness and parental disapproval, assessed by questionnaire, were tested in Chi-squared stratified analysis and logistic regression to predict youth smoking.
The majority (86%) of the parents/guardians were the natural parent of the surveyed child (67% mother; 19% father). Parental mean age was 41 years, 54% reported household incomes less than $30K, and 26% were current smokers. Youth had a mean age of 13 years, 28% self-identified as African-American, 37% as Asian, and 35% as "Multiethnic"; 41% reported ever smoking, and 9% reported smoking within the past 30 days. Perceived parental disapproval of smoking was not associated with youth smoking behavior. Among youth whose parent did not smoke, those who reported low level of parent-child connectedness were two times more likely to report ever having smoked than those who reported high levels of connectedness. Among youth whose parent smoked, connectedness was not associated with youth smoking. The interaction between connectedness and parental smoking status and its relationship to youth smoking remained significant after controlling for covariates.
Overall, high levels of parent-child connectedness are protective against youth smoking. However, family connectedness may not protect children from becoming smokers when parents smoke.
Tilson, EC; McBride, CM; Lipkus, IM; Catalano, RF
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