A phase I study of eniluracil/5-FU in combination with radiation therapy for potentially resectable and/or unresectable cancer of the pancreas and distal biliary tract.
PURPOSE: Eniluracil is an effective inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). It allows for oral dosing of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which may potentially improve the antitumor activity of 5-FU when delivered concurrently with radiotherapy while avoiding the inconvenience and morbidity of continuous infusion (CI) 5-FU. We addressed the safety of oral eniluracil/5-FU combined with radiation therapy and determined the profile of dose-limiting toxicities and recommended Phase II dose (RPTD) in patients with pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with resectable or locally advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer received eniluracil (starting at 6.0 mg/m(2) q12h)/5-FU (starting at 0.6 mg/m(2) q12h). Eniluracil/5-FU were given concurrently with preoperative radiation to 4500 cGy followed by 540 cGy by reduced fields. Surgery was considered 4 weeks after completion of therapy. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were enrolled. Chemoradiotherapy was completed in all patients. The MTD was not reached and, thus, the RPTD of eniluracil/5-FU was determined to be 10 mg/m(2) q12h/1 mg/m(2) q12h. Two patients with locally advanced disease had a 30-45 percent cross-sectional tumor reduction, one of which underwent margin-negative resection. Two of 5 patients with pancreatic cancer, and 1 of 3 patients with cholangiocarcinoma, with underwent exploratory surgery had margin-negative resections. One patient had a pathologic complete response (pCR). Patient 5-FU plasma exposure increased slightly from Day 8 to Day 31. CONCLUSION: Preoperative chemoradiation with oral eniluracil/5-FU is feasible, well tolerated, and potentially effective in the neoadjuvant setting. Further investigation of oral fluoropyrimidines as radiosensitizers for pancreaticobiliary malignancies is warranted.
Czito, BG; Hong, TJ; Cohen, DP; Petros, WP; Tyler, DS; Pappas, TN; Yu, D; Lee, CG; Lockhart, AC; Morse, MA; Fernando, N; Hurwitz, HI
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