Barrett's esophagus, esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: the role of diet.
Identification of modifiable risk factors is an attractive approach to primary prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJAC). We conducted a review of the literature to investigate the association between specific dietary components and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), EAC and EGJAC, supposing diet might be a risk factor for these tumors. Consumption of meat and high-fat meals has been found positively associated with EAC and EGJAC. An inverse association with increased intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidants has been reported but this association was not consistent across all studies reviewed. Few studies have examined the association between diet and BE. Additional research is needed to confirm the aforementioned association and clarify the mechanisms by which dietary components affect the risk of developing EAC and EGJAC. Future studies could advance our knowledge by emphasizing prospective designs to reduce recall bias, by using validated dietary intake questionnaires and biological measures and by considering important confounders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, tobacco and alcohol use, biometrics, physical activity, and socioeconomic factors.
De Ceglie, A; Fisher, DA; Filiberti, R; Blanchi, S; Conio, M
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