Relationships between adipose tissue and cytokine responses to a randomized controlled exercise training intervention.
Adipose-derived cytokines play a prominent role in mediating the metabolic consequences of obesity and excess body fat. Given this, we hypothesized that alterations in adipose tissue stores incurred with exercise training would be reflected in changes in systemic cytokine concentrations. The Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise, where pronounced changes in adipose tissue stores were observed in the absence of significant changes in dietary intake, provided an ideal setting in which to test this hypothesis. Participants were randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 types of aerobic exercise training regimens: low-amount-moderate-intensity, low-amount-vigorous-intensity, and high-amount-vigorous-intensity. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and 2 weeks after cessation of 6 months of exercise training or inactivity. In 189 participants, concentrations of 17 cytokines were measured using Bio-Plex Cytokine Assays (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA); 10 additional cytokines were measured in 60 of these subjects. Of all cytokines tested, the only concentration changes that approached statistical significance were those for granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which appeared to increase with training in the low-amount-high-intensity group only (P < .05 for both cytokines). No response to exercise training was noted for any additional cytokine in any of the groups. No relationships were observed between changes in cytokine concentrations and changes in fat mass or other measures of body habitus. In contradiction to our hypothesis, despite significant alterations in body composition, exercise training produced limited cytokine responses.
Huffman, KM; Slentz, CA; Bales, CW; Houmard, JA; Kraus, WE
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