Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity.
OBJECTIVE: To understand relationships between exercise training-mediated improvements in insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and changes in circulating concentrations of metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory mediators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Targeted mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers at baseline, after 6 months of exercise training, and 2 weeks after exercise training cessation (n = 53). A principal components analysis (PCA) strategy was used to relate changes in these intermediates to changes in S(I). RESULTS: PCA reduced the number of intermediates from 90 to 24 factors composed of biologically related components. With exercise training, improvements in S(I) were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P < 0.05, R² = 0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of exercise training (P < 0.05, R² = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: These observations support prior observations in animal models that exercise training promotes more efficient mitochondrial β-oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding exercise training and glycine metabolism.
Huffman, KM; Slentz, CA; Bateman, LA; Thompson, D; Muehlbauer, MJ; Bain, JR; Stevens, RD; Wenner, BR; Kraus, VB; Newgard, CB; Kraus, WE
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