Alpha₁-antitrypsin deficiency-related alleles Z and S and the risk of Wegener's granulomatosis.
OBJECTIVE: Deficiency of α(1) -antitrypsin (α(1) AT) may be a determinant of susceptibility to Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Several previous, mainly small, case-control studies have shown that 5-27% of patients with WG carried the α(1) AT deficiency Z allele. It is not clear whether the S allele, the other major α(1) AT deficiency variant, is associated with WG. This study investigated the relationship of the α(1) AT deficiency Z and S alleles with the risk of developing WG in a large cohort. METHODS: We studied the distribution of the α(1) AT deficiency alleles Z and S in 433 unrelated Caucasian patients with WG and 421 ethnically matched controls. Genotyping was performed using an allele discrimination assay. Results were compared between cases and controls using exact statistical methods. RESULTS: Among the patients with WG, the allele carriage frequencies of Z and S were 7.4% and 11.5%, respectively. The frequencies of the 6 possible genotypes differed in a statistically significant manner between cases and controls (P = 0.01). The general genetic 2-parameter codominant model provided the best fit to the data. Compared with the normal MM genotype, the odds ratio (OR) for MZ or MS genotypes was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.98-2.22), and the OR for ZZ, SS, or SZ genotypes was 14.58 (95% CI 2.33-∞). ORs of similar direction and magnitude were observed within the restricted cohorts that excluded cases and controls carrying ≥1 Z or ≥1 S allele. CONCLUSION: Both Z and S alleles display associations with risk of WG in a codominant genetic pattern. These findings strengthen the evidence of a causal link between α(1) AT deficiency and susceptibility to WG.
Mahr, AD; Edberg, JC; Stone, JH; Hoffman, GS; St Clair, EW; Specks, U; Dellaripa, PF; Seo, P; Spiera, RF; Rouhani, FN; Brantly, ML; Merkel, PA
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