Changes in neuropsychological functioning with progression of HIV-1 infection: results of an 8-year longitudinal investigation.
Despite the advent of more effective treatments for HIV-1 infection, cognitive impairment is still frequent and questions remain regarding which areas of impairment are more common in the different disease stages. This study investigated cognitive performance over an 8-year period of time in 59 HIV-1 seropositive (HIV-1+) men who were clinically asymptomatic at study entry, in comparison to a cohort of 55 HIV-1 seronegative (HIV-1-) men. Every 6 months we examined cognitive functioning in 5 domains-fine motor speed, attention, verbal memory, executive functioning, and speed of information processing. We found that patients with AIDS scored significantly worse on fine motor speed and speed of information processing than HIV-1- individuals and the HIV-1+ non-AIDS patients. In addition, the HIV-1+ non-AIDS patients performed more poorly than the HIV-1- group on speed of information processing. Depressive symptoms were also associated with diminished performance on measures of attention, executive functioning, and speed of information processing. Further research is needed to examine the effects of disease stage and depression on cognitive impairment in the era of new HIV treatments.
Baldewicz, TT; Leserman, J; Silva, SG; Petitto, JM; Golden, RN; Perkins, DO; Barroso, J; Evans, DL
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