The effects of CpG DNA on HMGB1 release by murine macrophage cell lines.
DNA containing cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs (CpG DNA) has potent immunostimulatory activities that resemble those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in its effects on the innate immune system. Among its activities, LPS can induce the release of high mobility group protein (HMGB1) by macrophages, a dual function molecule that can mediate the late effects of LPS. To determine whether CpG DNA can also induce HMGB1 release, the effects of a synthetic CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) on HMGB1 release from RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells were assessed by Western blotting of culture supernatants. Under conditions in which the CpG ODN activated the cell lines, as assessed by stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-12, it failed to cause HMGB1 release into the media. Although unable to induce HMGB1 release by itself, the CpG ODN nevertheless potentiated the action of LPS. With RAW 264.7 cells, lipoteichoic acid and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, like LPS, stimulated HMGB1 release as well as cytokine production. These results indicate that the effects of CpG DNA on macrophages differ from other ligands of Toll-like receptors and may lead to a distinct pattern of immune cell activation in the context of infection or its use as an immunomodulatory agent.
Jiang, W; Li, J; Gallowitsch-Puerta, M; Tracey, KJ; Pisetsky, DS
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