Multivalent cross-linking of membrane Ig sensitizes murine B cells to a broader spectrum of CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide motifs, including their methylated counterparts, for stimulation of proliferation and Ig secretion.
We have previously reported that B cells that are activated by multivalent but not bivalent membrane Ig cross-linking ligands synergize with various B cell activators culminating in enhanced B cell proliferation. In this study we asked whether B cells that are activated by a multivalent mIg cross-linking agonist could respond to oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing non-stimulatory motifs. Earlier reports have shown that ODN containing a CpG motif in which the cytosine is unmethylated and is flanked by two 5' purines and two 3' pyrimidines induce high levels of B cell activation, while ODN whose CpG are methylated or flanked by sequences other than the optimal two 5' purines and two 3' pyrimidines were non-stimulatory. In this manuscript we show that when B cells are stimulated in vitro with dextran-conjugated anti-IgD antibodies (anti-IgD-dex), as the multivalent mIg ligand, their proliferation is enhanced and they can be induced to secrete Ig in response to ODN containing various non-optimal motifs, both methylated and non-methylated. Furthermore we could induce synergistic levels of proliferation with concentrations of anti-IgD-dex that were in the picomolar concentration range and with concentrations of ODN that were 10- to 100-fold less than previously reported to be necessary for mitogenic activity. These data provided a model to explain how low concentrations of a multi-epitope-expressing microorganism in the context of mammalian (methylated) or microorganism (non-methylated) DNA can lead to dysregulated B cell proliferation and Ig secretion.
Goeckeritz, BE; Flora, M; Witherspoon, K; Vos, Q; Lees, A; Dennis, GJ; Pisetsky, DS; Klinman, DM; Snapper, CM; Mond, JJ
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