Role of the heat shock protein 90 in immune response stimulation by bacterial DNA and synthetic oligonucleotides.
To elucidate the mechanisms of immunostimulation by bacterial DNA and synthetic oligonucleotides, the effects of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors on the activation of murine spleen cells and macrophages by these molecules were investigated. Murine spleen cells and J774 and RAW264.7 macrophages responded to a CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) and Escherichia coli DNA by increased production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and nitric oxide (NO). Pretreatment with any of the three Hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin, radicicol, and herbimycin A resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of cytokine production from the spleen cells and macrophages and of NO from macrophages stimulated with CpG ODN or E. coli DNA. These Hsp90 inhibitors, however, had no effect on Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain 1-induced IL-12 production from either the murine spleen cells or macrophages. CpG ODN and E. coli DNA induced increased intracellular levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and -2), which are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, while geldanamycin and radicicol blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2 in J774 and RAW264.7 cells. These data indicate that DNA-induced activation of murine spleen cells and macrophages is mediated by Hsp90 and that Hsp90 inhibitor suppression of DNA-induced macrophage activation is associated with disruption of the MAP kinase signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may provide a useful means of elucidating the mechanisms of immunostimulation by bacterial DNA and CpG ODN as well as a strategy for preventing adverse effects of bacterial DNA as well as lipopolysaccharide.
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