The release of microparticles by Jurkat leukemia T cells treated with staurosporine and related kinase inhibitors to induce apoptosis.
Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane-bound vesicles released from cells undergoing activation or cell death. These particles display potent biological activities that can impact on physiologic and pathologic processes. Previous studies with the Jurkat T leukemia cell line demonstrated that staurosporine (STS) induces the release of MPs as cells undergo apoptosis. To investigate further this process, we tested the effects of STS, its analogue, 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), and other protein kinase C (PKC) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. FACS analysis was used to assess MP release. Results of these studies indicate that STS and UCN-01 induce MP release by Jurkat cells; in contrast, other PKC and CDK inhibitors failed to induce comparable release, suggesting that release does not result from simple inhibition of either kinase alone. Time course experiments indicated that STS-induced particle release occurred as early as 2 h after treatment, with the early release MPs displaying low levels of binding of annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Early-release MPs, however, matured in culture to an annexin V- and PI-positive phenotype. Together, these results indicate that STS and UCN-01 induce MPs that are phenotypically distinct and reflect specific patterns of kinase inhibition during apoptosis.
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