Prospective evaluation of the association between hemoglobin concentration and quality of life in patients with heart failure.
BACKGROUND: Reduced hemoglobin has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure, but the relationship of hemoglobin to health-related quality of life in outpatients with this syndrome has not been well studied. METHODS: We used data from the prospective, observational Study of Anemia in a Heart Failure Population Registry, which randomly selected outpatients with heart failure from specialty or community cardiology clinics. Hemoglobin was determined by finger stick at baseline and during medically indicated follow-up visits. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire at 3-month intervals for 12 months. RESULTS: Adjusted regression analysis demonstrated a significant, direct, linear relationship between hemoglobin and health-related quality of life from baseline through 12 months follow-up on all Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire domains (all P < .001) and the Summary and Physical domains of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (all P < .05). Adjusted categorical analysis of the change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical scores associated with change in hemoglobin from baseline to 6 months also showed a significant relationship between increasing hemoglobin and improved health status (5.9 +/- 1.8 units for a hemoglobin increase of >or=1 g/dL, 0.7 +/- 1.2 units for change in hemoglobin <1 g/dL, and -2.6 +/- 1.4 units for a >or=1 g/dL decrease in hemoglobin, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These prospective, observational results indicate that reduced hemoglobin is associated with poorer quality of life in patients with heart failure. Additional studies will be required to establish if this is a cause-and-effect relationship.
Adams, KF; Piña, IL; Ghali, JK; Wagoner, LE; Dunlap, SH; Schwartz, TA; Stough, WG; Mehra, MR; Felker, GM; Chiong, JR; Patterson, JH; Kim, J; Butler, J; Oren, RM
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