Cytokines as adjuvants for the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus peptide immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions after nasal immunization.
Safe and potent new adjuvants are needed for vaccines that are administered to mucosal surfaces. This study was performed to determine if interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) combined with other proinflammatory cytokines provided mucosal adjuvant activity for induction of systemic and mucosal anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptide antibody when intranasally administered with an HIV peptide immunogen. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of an HIV env peptide immunogen with IL-1alpha, IL-12, and IL-18 on days 0, 7, 14, and 28 induced peak serum anti-HIV peptide immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgA titers of 1:131,072 and 1:7,131, respectively (P = 0.05 versus no adjuvant). The use of cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal adjuvant induced serum IgG1 and IgA titers of 1:32,768 and 1:776, respectively. The adjuvant combination of IL-1alpha, IL-12, and IL-18 induced anti-HIV peptide IgA titers of 1:1,176, 1:7,131, and 1:4,705 in saliva, fecal extracts and vaginal lavage, respectively. Titers induced by the use of CT as an adjuvant were 1:223, 1:1,176, and 1:675, respectively. These results indicate that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-12, and IL-18 can replace CT as a mucosal adjuvant for antibody induction and are important candidates for use as mucosal adjuvants with HIV and other vaccines.
Bradney, CP; Sempowski, GD; Liao, H-X; Haynes, BF; Staats, HF
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