Birth defects among a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women on antiretroviral medication.


Journal Article

OBJECTIVE: To determine rate of and risk factors for birth defects in infants born to HIV-infected women receiving nucleoside and protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. METHODS: Birth defects were evaluated among infants on the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 316 trial that studied addition of peripartum nevirapine to established ARV regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Maternal therapy was categorized by trimester of earliest exposure. Birth defects were coded using conventions of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. RESULTS: Birth defects were detected in 60/1414 (4.2%; 95% CI 3.3-5.4%) infants including 30/636 (4.7%; 95% CI 3.2-6.7%) with first trimester ARV exposure and 30/778 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.6-5.5%) with exposure only after the first trimester (P=0.51). Rates of classes of defects were similar between first trimester compared to later exposure groups except heart defects which occurred in 16 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4-4.1%) with first trimester ARV exposure and in six (0.8%; 95% CI 0.3-1.7%) infants with later exposure (P=0.02). Exposure to ARV was not associated with specific types of heart defects. Two cases of cardiomyopathy were noted. CONCLUSION: ARV use in early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth defects overall. The possible association of ARV exposure with heart defects requires further surveillance.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Watts, DH; Huang, S; Culnane, M; Kaiser, KA; Scheuerle, A; Mofenson, L; Stanley, K; Newell, M-L; Mandelbrot, L; Delfraissy, J-F; Cunningham, CK

Published Date

  • March 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 39 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 163 - 170

PubMed ID

  • 21142844

Pubmed Central ID

  • 21142844

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1619-3997

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1515/JPM.2010.139


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Germany