Caregiver staffing in nursing homes and their influence on quality of care: using dynamic panel estimation methods.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


There is inconclusive evidence that nursing home caregiver staffing characteristics influence quality of care. In this research, the relationship of caregiver staffing levels, turnover, agency use, and professional staff mix with quality is further examined using a longitudinal analysis to overcome weaknesses of earlier research.


The data used came from a survey of nursing home administrators, Nursing Home Compare, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The staffing variables of Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Nurse Aides were measured quarterly from 2003 through 2007, and came from 2839 facilities. Generalized method of moments estimation was used to examine the effects of changes in staffing characteristics on changes in 4 quality measures (physical restraint use, catheter use, pain management, and pressure sores).


Regression analyses show a robust association between the staffing characteristic variables and quality indicators. A change to more favorable staffing is generally associated with a change to better quality.


With longitudinal information and quarterly staffing information, we are able to show that for many nursing homes improving staffing characteristics will improve quality of care.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Castle, NG; Anderson, RA

Published Date

  • June 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 49 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 545 - 552

PubMed ID

  • 21577182

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1537-1948

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0025-7079

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/mlr.0b013e31820fbca9


  • eng