Antiphospholipid antibodies: findings at arteriography.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and types of abnormalities at arteriography in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) and ischemic cerebrovascular events. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with APA and ischemic cerebrovascular events who underwent arteriography were identified. Patients over the age of 65 years were excluded. No patients met diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. All angiograms were reviewed by two neuroradiologists. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (74%) between the ages of 28 and 64 years (average age, 40 years) had abnormal angiograms. Sixteen patients had arterial abnormalities and one had dural sinus thrombosis. Ten had solely intracranial abnormalities (nine arterial and one venous), six had solely extracranial arterial abnormalities, and one had both intracranial and extracranial arterial abnormalities. Intracranial arterial abnormalities included stem or branch occlusions of the cerebral or basilar arteries, which were generally solitary (six patients), and findings suggestive of vasculitis (four patients). Four patients had stenoses of the origins of two or more great vessels. Two patients had extracranial internal carotid artery stenoses or occlusions that were not typical of atheromatous disease, considered to be embolic in one patient. In another patient, a stenosis of the origin of the internal carotid artery was present that appeared typical of atheromatous disease. Infarctions were seen on CT or MR studies in 13 of 17 patients with abnormal angiograms. CONCLUSION: In our group of patients, typical atheromatous lesions at the common carotid artery bifurcation were rare. Some lesions that are infrequent in the general stroke population (eg, vasculitis-like findings and stenoses at the origin of great vessels) were common. Patients with APA and cerebrovascular events appear to differ from the general stroke population with regard to types of arterial abnormalities seen at arteriography.
Provenzale, JM; Barboriak, DP; Allen, NB; Ortel, TL
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