Smoking in Vietnam combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.
The present study investigated smoking prevalence, smoking motives, demographic variables and psychological symptoms in 124 help-seeking, male Vietnam combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A high percentage of these veterans smoked (60%). Vietnam veterans with PTSD who smoked were more likely than those who did not smoke to report higher levels of PTSD symptoms, depression and trait anxiety. Increased depression was associated with increased automatic smoking. Smokers reported a high frequency of smoking in response to military memories. Implications for smoking interventions, cessation, and relapse prevention efforts are discussed.
Beckham, JC; Roodman, AA; Shipley, RH; Hertzberg, MA; Cunha, GH; Kudler, HS; Levin, ED; Rose, JE; Fairbank, JA
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