The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and smoking outcome expectancies among U.S. military veterans who served since September 11, 2001.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased rates of smoking although little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study examined expectations about smoking outcomes among smokers with and without PTSD. The sample included 96 veterans (mean age of 34 years) and included 17% women and 50% racial minorities. Smoking expectancies were measured with the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (Copeland, Brandon, & Quinn, 1995). Consistent with previous work suggesting that smokers with PTSD smoke in an effort to reduce negative affect, unadjusted analyses indicated that smokers with PTSD (n = 38) had higher expectations that smoking reduces negative affect than smokers without PTSD (d = 0.61). Smokers with PTSD also had increased expectancies associated with boredom reduction (d = 0.48), stimulation (d = 0.61), taste/sensorimotor manipulation aspects of smoking (d = 0.73), and social facilitation (d = 0.61). Results of hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that PTSD symptom severity was uniquely associated with these expectancies beyond the effects of gender and nicotine dependence. More positive beliefs about the consequences of smoking may increase risk of continued smoking among those with PTSD who smoke. Further understanding of smoking expectancies in this group may help in developing interventions tailored for this vulnerable population.
Calhoun, PS; Levin, HF; Dedert, EA; Johnson, Y; VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, Clinical Center Registry Workgroup, ; Beckham, JC
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