Proteomic biomarker discovery in cerebrospinal fluid for cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Currently, there are no established biomarkers for diagnosing preclinical vasospasm or monitoring its progression. Two areas of extensive biomarker research are neuroimaging and biochemical markers in body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We performed a review of studies conducted over the past 2 decades summarizing the science to date and the evolution of CSF biomarkers in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A Medline search performed using the search terms "subarachnoid hemorrhage marker AND cerebrospinal fluid," limited to the period January 1, 1990 to June 1, 2009, returned 62 references. Abstracts that did not deal primarily with SAH and potential markers in the CSF of humans were excluded, resulting in 27 abstracts. Only articles providing sufficient information for a substantiated analysis were selected. In addition, articles identified in reference lists of individual articles were selected if considered appropriate. Evidence was classified as class I-IV and recommendations were classified as category A-C according to European Federation of Neurological Societies guidelines. We evaluated CSF markers in SAH patients and divided them into 3 categories: A, markers with auspicious value; B, candidate markers; and C, noncandidate markers. Category A markers included tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFR-I), and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), as well as the neurofilament proteins NFL and NfH. Category B markers included apolipoprotein E (ApoE), F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP), NOx, and the indicators for thrombin activity membrane-bound tissue factor (mTF) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) for neurologic outcome prediction, as well as E-selectin, lactate, alpha-II spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) for vasospasm prognostication. Category C markers included S100B, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), YKL-40, chitotriosidase, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-8. Cytokines and their receptors, as well as neuronal intracellular proteins, seem to be potential markers for outcome determination in patients after SAH.
Lad, SP; Hegen, H; Gupta, G; Deisenhammer, F; Steinberg, GK
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