Intracardiac echocardiography in congenital heart disease.
The use of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in congenital heart disease has become well established over the past 7 years since its introduction into clinical imaging. The greatest experience has been to guide percutaneous device closures of secundum atrial septal defects and patent foramen ovale, with excellent safety and clinical results. However, ICE has also been used for the evaluation and management of many other congenital heart defects given its unique blood/transducer interface and close proximity to relevant cardiac anatomy. Clinical application of ICE is expanding, with the current ICE catheters being used as micro-transesophageal echo probes, and three-dimensional prototypes already developed and tested in animal models. It is expected that ICE will further increase in use with refinements in technology and greater operator experience, aiding the management of complex congenital heart disease.
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